Kalakuta Republic was the name musician & political activist Fela Anikulapo Kuti gave to the communal compound that housed his family, band members, & recording studio. The word "Kalakuta" was a caricature of a prison cell named Calcutta that Fela Kuti inhabited. The compound was burned to the ground on 1977 after an assault by a thousand armed soldiers...

dynamicafrica:

The 15th October marks the anniversary of one of Nigeria’s greatest musicians, the ever-iconic force that was (and still is) the late Fela Anikulapo Kuti.

In celebration of the aptly-titled day known as a ‘Felabration’, merging it with this month’s theme of highlighting African art, artists and art inspired by Africa/Africans, here are a few of my favourite pieces of art inspired by Fela.

But of course, the greatest artist to ever create images influenced by the life of Fela was the equally legendary Lemi Ghariokwu.

Click on the images for details and sources.

October: Highlighting African Art & African Artists

Posted at 12:39am.

Human Rights Watch, 2004.

(Isabel dos Santos is Angola’s & Africa’s richest woman, with a net worth of over $3 Billion. She is the daughter of Angola’s President José Eduardo dos Santos, who has ruled Angola since 1979.)

 

Posted at 8:57am and tagged with: angola, corrupt, corruption, government coruption, African people, government, poverty, isabel dos santos, history, truth, humans rights watch, luanda, José Eduardo dos Santos,.

When a government is the direct beneficiary of a centrally controlled major revenue stream and is therefore not reliant on domestic taxation or a diversified economy to function, those who rule the state have unique opportunities for self-richment and corruption, particularly if there is no transparency in the management of revenues. Because achieving political power often becomes the primary avenue for achieving wealth, the incentive to seize power and hold on to it indefinitely is great. This dynamic has a corrosive effect on governance and, ultimately, respect for human rights. Instead of bringing prosperity, rule of law and respect for rights, the existence of a centrally controlled revenue stream - such as oil revenue - can serve to reinforce and exacerbate an undemocratic or otherwise unaccountable ruler’s or governing elite’s worst tendencies and enrich itself without any corresponding accountability… This has happened in Angola.

mapsontheweb:

How Africa Would Look Like if its Borders Were Defined By Ethnicity and Language. By George Peter Murdock,1959

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Posted at 6:28am and tagged with: africa, ethnicity, tribes, culture, history, map, truth, africans, black,.

mapsontheweb:

How Africa Would Look Like if its Borders Were Defined By Ethnicity and Language. By George Peter Murdock,1959
Read More

eocmagazine:

Queen Amina 

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Queen Amina (also known as Queen Aminatu), was the elder daughter of Queen Bakwa Turunku, the founder of the Zazzau Kingdom in 1536. Some scholars date Queen Amina’s reign to about 1549, as heir apparent after the death of her mother. This medieval African kingdom was located in the region now known as the Kaduna State in the north-central region of Nigeria, capital at the modern city of Zaria. Zaria (aka Birnin Zaria) was named after Queen Amina’s younger sister Zariya, and is where the Royal Palace of Zaria resided.

Queen Amina is a legend among the Hausa people for her military exploits. She controlled the trade routes in the region, erecting a network of commerce within the great earthen walls that surrounded Hausa cities within her dominion. According to the Kano Chronicle, she conquered as far as Nupe and Kwarafa, ruling for 34 years.

Source: http://www.blackhistoryheroes.com/2013/07/queen-amina-of-zaira-west-african.html

Queen Nzinga

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In the sixteenth century, the Portugese position in the slave trade was threatened by England and France. As a result, the Portugese shifted their slave-trading activities to the Congo and South West Afrika. Mistaking the title of the ruler (ngola) for the name of the country, the Portugese called the land of the Mbundu people Angola—the name by which it is still known today. Here, the Portugese encountered the brilliant and courageous Queen Nzinga, who was determined never to accept the Portugese conquest of her country. An exceptional stateswoman and military strategist, she harassed the Portugese until her death, at age eighty.

Queen Nzinga (Nzinga Mbande), the monarch of the Mbundu people, was a resilient leader who fought against the Portuguese and their expanding slave trade in Central Africa.

During the late 16th Century, the French and the English threatened the Portuguese near monopoly on the sources of slaves along the West African coast, forcing it to seek new areas for exploitation. By 1580 they had already established a trading relationship with Afonso I in the nearby Kongo Kingdom. They then turned to Angola, south of the Kongo.

The Portuguese established a fort and settlement at Luanda in 1617, encroaching on Mbundu land. In 1622 they invited Ngola (King) Mbande to attend a peace conference there to end the hostilities with the Mbundu. Mbande sent his sister, Nzinga, to represent him in a meeting with Portuguese Governor Joao Corria de Sousa. Nzinga was aware of her diplomatically awkward position. She knew of events in the Kongo which had led to Portuguese domination of the nominally independent nation. She also recognized, however, that to refuse to trade with the Portuguese would remove a potential ally and the major source of guns for her own state.

In the first of a series of meetings Nzinga sought to establish her equality with the representative of the Portugal crown. Noting that the only chair in the room belonged to Governor Corria, she immediately motioned to one of her assistants who fell on her hands and knees and served as a chair for Nzinga for the rest of the meeting.

Despite that display, Nzinga made accommodations with the Portuguese. She converted to Christianity and adopted the name Dona Anna de Souza. She was baptized in honor of the governor’s wife who also became her godmother. Shortly afterwards Nzinga urged a reluctant Ngola Mbande to order the conversion of his people to Christianity.

In 1626 Nzinga became Queen of the Mbundu when her brother committed suicide in the face of rising Portuguese demands for slave trade concessions. Nzinga, however, refused to allow them to control her nation. In 1627, after forming alliances with former rival states, she led her army against the Portuguese, initiating a thirty year war against them. She exploited European rivalry by forging an alliance with the Dutch who had conquered Luanda in 1641. With their help, Nzinga defeated a Portuguese army in 1647. When the Dutch were in turn defeated by the Portuguese the following year and withdrew from Central Africa, Nzinga continued her struggle against the Portuguese. Now in her 60s she still personally led troops in battle. She also orchestrated guerilla attacks on the Portuguese which would continue long after her death and inspire the ultimately successful 20th Century armed resistance against the Portuguese that resulted in independent Angola in 1975.

Despite repeated attempts by the Portuguese and their allies to capture or kill Queen Nzinga, she died peacefully in her eighties on December 17, 1663.

Source: http://www.blackpast.org/gah/queen-nzinga-1583-1663

Queen Tiye

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Queen Tiye (Taia, Tiy, and Tiyi) was the matriarch of the Amarna Dynasty, also referred to as: Lady of The Two Lands; Hereditary Princess; Great of Praises; Sweet of Love; King’s Wife; Great King’s Wife; Great King’s Spouse; King’s Wife, His Beloved; Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt; Mistress of the Two Lands).

Queen Tiye’s father was Yuya, the commander of the Chariotry, God’s Father and High Priest of Min from Akhmin in Upper Kemet. Her mother was Thuya (Tuya, Tjuyu, Thuyu, Singer of Hathor), Chief of the Entertainers of Amun and Min. According to “The Complete Practical Encyclopedia of Archaeology,” Thuya may have also been descendent of Ahmose-Nefertari of the 18th dynasty. Queen Tiye’s parents were buried in the Valley of the Kings (tomb KV46). Her brother was Amen, Second Priest of Amun in Karnak.

The ancient Egyptian (Kemet) ruler Pharaoh Amenhotep III was so captivated by Queen Tiye’s wisdom and beauty that he defied customs and made her his Great Royal Spouse during the second year of his reign. The commentators note that her counsel was relied upon greatly by Pharaoh Amenhotep III, in both national military and political matters. According to some Amarna letters, Queen Tiye was indeed an influential lady at court and acquired independent wealth owned separate from the wealth of the royal house.

Source: http://www.blackhistoryheroes.com/2010/05/queen-tiye.html

Empress Menen

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Empress Menen was the wife and consort of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia.. She was active in promoting women’s issues in Ethiopia, was Patroness of the Ethiopian Red Cross, and the Ethiopian Women’s Charitable Organization. She was also patroness of the Jerusalem Society that arranged for pilgrimages to the Holy Land. She founded the Empress Menen School for Girls in Addis Ababa, the first all-girls school which had both boarding and day students. Girls from all over the Empire were brought to the school to receive a modern education, encouraged by the Empress who visited it often and presided over its graduation ceremonies. The Empress gave generously, as well as sponsored programs for the poor, ill and disabled. She was also a devoutly religious woman who did much to support the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. She built, renovated and endowed numerous churches in Ethiopia and in the Holy Land. Prominent among these are the St. Raguel Church in Addis Ababa’s Merkato district, the Kidane Mehret (Our Lady Covenant of Mercy) Church on Mount Entoto, and the Holy Trinity Monastery on the banks of the River Jordan in the Holy Land. She gave generously from her personal funds towards the building of the new Cathedral of St. Mary of Zion at Axum, but did not live to see it completed and dedicated.

When the Empress was exiled from Ethiopia during the Italian occupation from 1936 to 1941, she made a pledge to the Virgin Mary at the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, promising to give her crown to the church if Ethiopia were liberated from occupation. The Empress made numerous pilgrimages to Holy Sites in then British-ruled Palestine, in Syria and in Lebanon, during her exile to pray for her occupied homeland. Following the return of Emperor Haile Selassie and his family to Ethiopia in 1941, a replica of the crown was made for future Empresses, but the original crown that Empress Menen was crowned with at her husband’s side in 1930 was sent to the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. Empress Menen, although often seen wearing a tiara at public events that called for it, would never again wear a full crown.

Empress Menen performed perfectly in the role of Empress-consort. In her public role she combined religious piety, concern for social causes, and support for development schemes with the majesty of her Imperial status. Outwardly she was the dutiful wife, visiting schools, churches, exhibitions and model farms, attending public and state events at her husband’s side or by herself. She took no public stand on political or policy issues. Behind the scenes however, she was the Emperor’s most trusted advisor, quietly offering advice on a whole range of issues. She avoided the publicly political role that her predecessor as Empress-consort, Empress Taitu Bitul, had taken, which had caused deep resentment in government circles during the reign of Menelik II.

Purchase Empress Menen’s biography here
Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menen_Asfaw‎

Click here to read about our featured entrepreneur for this week!

Posted at 8:30pm and tagged with: queens, africa, african history, african queens, feminism, history, empress, feminist, truth, black history, women, african women, black women,.

nok-ind:

 World’s languages traced back to single African mother tongue: scientists.

New Zealand researchers have traced every human language — from English to Mandarin — back to an ancestral language spoken in Africa 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.

Scientists say they have traced the world’s 6,000 modern languages — from English to Mandarin — back to a single “mother tongue,” an ancestral language spoken in Africa 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.

New research, published in the journal Science, suggests this single ancient language resulted in human civilization — a Diaspora — as well as advances in art and hunting tool technology, and laid the groundwork for all the world’s cultures.

The research, by Quentin Atkinson from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, also found that speech evolved far earlier than previously thought. And the findings implied, though did not prove, that modern language originated only once, an issue of controversy among linguists, according to the New York Times.

Before Atkinson came up with the evidence for a single African origin of language, some scientists had argued that language evolved independently in different parts of the world.

Atkinson found that the first populations migrating from Africa laid the groundwork for all the world’s cultures by taking their single language with them. “It was the catalyst that spurred the human expansion that we all are a product of,” Atkinson said, the Wall Street Journal reported.

Atkinson traced the number distinct sounds, or phonemes — consonants, vowels and tones — in 504 world languages, finding compelling evidence that they can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors, according to the Daily Mail.

Atkinson also hypothesized that languages with the most sounds would be the oldest, while those spoken by smaller breakaway groups would utilize fewer sounds as variation and complexity diminished.

The study found that some of the click-using languages of Africa have more than 100 phonemes, or sounds, whereas Hawaiian, toward the far end of the human migration route out of Africa, has only 13, the Times reported. English has about 45 phonemes.

The phoneme pattern mirrors the pattern of human genetic diversity as humans spread across the globe from sub-Saharan Africa around 70,000 years ago.

Source: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/business-tech/science/110415/language-science-linguistics-mother-tongue-english-chinese-mandarin-africa

Posted at 8:30pm and tagged with: africa, linguistics, language, culture, history, african history, black history, Kalakuta Journals, human history, africans, speech, science, research,.

nok-ind:

 World’s languages traced back to single African mother tongue: scientists.
New Zealand researchers have traced every human language — from English to Mandarin — back to an ancestral language spoken in Africa 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.
Scientists say they have traced the world’s 6,000 modern languages — from English to Mandarin — back to a single “mother tongue,” an ancestral language spoken in Africa 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.
New research, published in the journal Science, suggests this single ancient language resulted in human civilization — a Diaspora — as well as advances in art and hunting tool technology, and laid the groundwork for all the world’s cultures.
The research, by Quentin Atkinson from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, also found that speech evolved far earlier than previously thought. And the findings implied, though did not prove, that modern language originated only once, an issue of controversy among linguists, according to the New York Times.
Before Atkinson came up with the evidence for a single African origin of language, some scientists had argued that language evolved independently in different parts of the world.
Atkinson found that the first populations migrating from Africa laid the groundwork for all the world’s cultures by taking their single language with them. “It was the catalyst that spurred the human expansion that we all are a product of,” Atkinson said, the Wall Street Journal reported.
Atkinson traced the number distinct sounds, or phonemes — consonants, vowels and tones — in 504 world languages, finding compelling evidence that they can be traced back to a long-forgotten dialect spoken by our Stone Age ancestors, according to the Daily Mail.
Atkinson also hypothesized that languages with the most sounds would be the oldest, while those spoken by smaller breakaway groups would utilize fewer sounds as variation and complexity diminished.
The study found that some of the click-using languages of Africa have more than 100 phonemes, or sounds, whereas Hawaiian, toward the far end of the human migration route out of Africa, has only 13, the Times reported. English has about 45 phonemes.
The phoneme pattern mirrors the pattern of human genetic diversity as humans spread across the globe from sub-Saharan Africa around 70,000 years ago.
Source: http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/business-tech/science/110415/language-science-linguistics-mother-tongue-english-chinese-mandarin-africa

divinemoon:

YORUBA THEOLOGY

The Yoruba theology resides mainly in the believe of a one God, who created everything that exists. From Him came several energies who take care of every detail of the Universe, those are called by the Yoruban believers, Irunmole and Orishas.

In the Yoruba system of belief, before you’re born you have already decided what is going to happen with your life, this happens through Ori, which decide what is going to be the main objective in the new life you’re begining. Using the different energies of the Universe, we can achieve easily the needed balance to get to that final objective pre defined by ourselves, meaning living life in balance, with health, happiness and wealth.

Once you come to the earthly plane, your body is formed by three elements: Emí (spirit), Orí (soul) and Ará (body). The Emí and the Orí live inside the Ará but separated. Orí has the knowledge and the wisdom of passed lifes, it keeps closed to ones consciousness until death.

Emí allows us to our internal dialogue, it stores memories from this encarnation, and it goes aside from our counsciousness when we incorporate the Orisha, then he goes out the Ará.

When we die, Emí and Orí becomes one and leave the Ará who will transform in a dead body (Okú). Once they’re only one energy they’ll wait for the fate that will come to them, meaning returning to Aiyé transformed in an spirit (eggun) and wait for the reincarnation (Atúnwá), or if Aragbá Orún (Way to Orún), to get to the Ará Orún state (habitant of the Orún) with the Orishas. These state is only achieved after several reincarnations, until ones Emí has a state pure enough to become an habitant of Orún.

Every dweller of Aiyé, according to their behaviour in life can be considered as an omoluabí or an ajogun. Those who broked the laws and had a despicable behaviour during life, become ajogun or dark spirits, among those are:

Iku: The Death. King of the Ajogun.
Arun: The disease.
Ofo: The greed.
Epe: The hatress.
Ewon: The selfishness.
Egba: The loneliness.

The omoluabí are those that were rightous in the life, but anyway commited some mistakes, they’re considered kind spirits and can be adored as family ancestors.

Posted at 7:52am and tagged with: yoruba, culture, africa, history, black history, nigeria, nigerian, african, theology,.

divinemoon:

YORUBA THEOLOGY


The Yoruba theology resides mainly in the believe of a one God, who created everything that exists. From Him came several energies who take care of every detail of the Universe, those are called by the Yoruban believers, Irunmole and Orishas.In the Yoruba system of belief, before you’re born you have already decided what is going to happen with your life, this happens through Ori, which decide what is going to be the main objective in the new life you’re begining. Using the different energies of the Universe, we can achieve easily the needed balance to get to that final objective pre defined by ourselves, meaning living life in balance, with health, happiness and wealth.Once you come to the earthly plane, your body is formed by three elements: Emí (spirit), Orí (soul) and Ará (body). The Emí and the Orí live inside the Ará but separated. Orí has the knowledge and the wisdom of passed lifes, it keeps closed to ones consciousness until death.Emí allows us to our internal dialogue, it stores memories from this encarnation, and it goes aside from our counsciousness when we incorporate the Orisha, then he goes out the Ará.When we die, Emí and Orí becomes one and leave the Ará who will transform in a dead body (Okú). Once they’re only one energy they’ll wait for the fate that will come to them, meaning returning to Aiyé transformed in an spirit (eggun) and wait for the reincarnation (Atúnwá), or if Aragbá Orún (Way to Orún), to get to the Ará Orún state (habitant of the Orún) with the Orishas. These state is only achieved after several reincarnations, until ones Emí has a state pure enough to become an habitant of Orún.Every dweller of Aiyé, according to their behaviour in life can be considered as an omoluabí or an ajogun. Those who broked the laws and had a despicable behaviour during life, become ajogun or dark spirits, among those are:Iku: The Death. King of the Ajogun.Arun: The disease.Ofo: The greed.Epe: The hatress.Ewon: The selfishness.Egba: The loneliness.The omoluabí are those that were rightous in the life, but anyway commited some mistakes, they’re considered kind spirits and can be adored as family ancestors.

Walden Bello, reporting for Foreign Policy in Focus, observes that Africa was self-sufficient in food production after declaring independence from its colonial rulers in the 1960s. Yet today, hunger and famine in Africa have “become recurrent phenomena” across the continent.

According to BBC analyst Martin Plaut, Africa was also a food net exporter between 1966 and 1970, with an average of 1.3 million tons of food exported each year. In stark contrast, almost all of today’s African countries are dependent on imports and food aid, a dramatic shift that took less than 40 years to transpire.

Which begs the question: how did an entire continent go from being a net food exporter to a net food importer, from food abundance to mass starvation, in such a short period of time?

In her book The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Naomi Klein details how global power players use times of crisis and chaos as a pretext for imposing destructive free-market policies that advance the interests of the wealthy. As far back as the 1970s, economists inspired by free-market guru Milton Friedman were inspiring U.S.-backed coups and military juntas to push an unpopular radical free-market agenda onto the unwilling populations of countries like Chile, Brazil and Argentina.

But Klein highlights a significant shift in strategy that took place in the mid-1980s, when economists recognized that a financial crisis “simulates the effects of a military war—spreading fear and confusion, creating refugees and causing large loss of life” — the same shock-inducing conditions that left societies ripe for disaster capitalism.

Throughout the ’60s and ’70s, Western financial institutions went on a lending spree at extremely low interest rates, mostly to developing countries that were encouraged to borrow. By the late ’70s and early ’80s, U.S. interest rates soared to levels as high as 21 percent, devastating the fragile economies of developing nations that had taken on massive debt.

Klein compares the impact of this “debt shock” to “a giant Taser gun fired from Washington, sending the developing world into convulsions.” African countries could barely afford the sky-high interest payments, let alone the actual debt and were thrown into a downward spiral of financial crises. This is where the story of Africa’s famine truly begins.

‘The Dictatorship of Debt’

The erosion of African agriculture is due in large part to policies imposed on debt-ridden African countries by the World Bank and the IMF—financial institutions set up in the aftermath of World War II with the stated aim of deterring financial crises like the ones that pushed Weimer Germany toward fascism.

The donor nations of the IMF and World Bank divvy up power within each institution based on the size of a country’s economy, allowing a handful of privileged nations, led by the U.S., to dominate decision making. As a result, Klein explains that the pro-corporatist administrations of Reagan and Thatcher in the ’70s and ’80s were “able to harness the two institutions for their own ends, rapidly increasing their power and turning them into primary vehicles for the advancement of the corporatist crusade.”

Driven by the ideology of the so-called free market, the IMF and World Bank attached conditions to desperately needed debt relief that required developing nations to implement Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs), what Naomi Klein calls “the dictatorship of debt.”

SAPs forced governments to impose a neoliberal package of austerity, privatization and massive deregulation. For Africa, this meant cutting government subsidies to small farmers, eliminating tariffs and price controls, selling off food and grain reserves (which kept countries from starving in cases of drought or crop failure), increasing cash crop exports of raw materials to the west, and allowing foreign imports from the US and Europe to flood their markets.

Although the IMF and World Bank argued that restructuring was necessary to reduce Africa’s debt and foster economic growth, their policies produced the opposite effects: soaring debt and economic stagnation.

In a 2004 study commissioned by the Halifax Initiative, writer Asad Ismi meticulously documents the consequences of SAPs on the African continent. Between 1980 and 1993, he found a total of 566 structural adjustment programs were forced onto 70 developing countries, including 36 of Africa’s 47 Sub-Saharan nations. Since the implementation of SAPs in the 1980s, Africa’s debt soared more than 500 percent, with an estimated $229 billion worth of debt payments transferred from Sub-Saharan Africa to the west, four times the original debt owed. According to the IMF’s World Economic Outlook Database, African debt still stands at $324.7 billion, with the overwhelming majority, $278.5 billion, owed by Sub-Saharan Africa, demonstrating that SAPs have pushed Africa into perpetual debt, with no end in sight.

What does this have to do with famine? Well, perpetual debt forces governments to divert spending to debt repayment, rather than investing in basic infrastructure like healthcare and education, which is relatively non-existent in Sub-Saharan Africa. With only 10 percent of the world’s population, the Sub-Saharan region comprises 68 percent of all people living with HIV. Yet, according to Ismi, “Africa spends four times more on debt interest payments than on health care.”

The same holds true for the agricultural sector. SAPs initiated the collapse of African food security, diverting land, water and labor away from small-scale farming toward the production of cash crops, whose earnings were used to pay off debt.

Ironically, as they demanded that African states eliminate subsidies for small-scale farmers, the United States and Europe continued to provide their agricultural sectors with billions of dollars in subsidies, forcing peasant farmers to compete with an influx of cheap, subsidized commercial staples from the west—clearly a losing battle.

In 2004, Project Censored described this U.S. practice as “underselling starving nations,” a process that ensures U.S. commodities cost less than their small-scale counterparts, essentially pricing local farmers out of the market. Walden Bello points out that the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture cemented these lopsided policies, making developing countries the permanent dumping grounds for cheap surplus production from the global north. Thus, between 1995 and 2004, agriculture subsidies in developed countries went from $367 billion to $388 per year.

The few subsidies the IMF did permit were strictly reserved for African commercial agriculture goods for export to Europe and America. For Kenya, where a quarter of the population lives on less than a dollar a day, this meant ditching government support for subsistence farmers and diverting resources to the production of raw exports (cash crops) for the west, like tea, coffee, tobacco and cut flowers. Earnings from exports were then used to service the country’s massive debt.

Posted at 8:30pm.

Growth is necessary for the people of the African continent to rise from the suffocating shadows of poverty, however that growth does not have to include designs on superpower status. So many conflicts have, and continue to ravage our nations. Wars have continued for decades grinding progress, and hope, to a standstill. Death is jealous master; education, healthcare, innovation, art all stand outside in the cold, as death takes center stage. Though many brave African souls push forward, denying violence purchase, condemning the claims warfare has placed on their lands, the crusade for dominance on the African continent continues to plow through families, villages, towns, and countries leaving carnage in its wake. So, if decades of conflict have not brought us into the sun, then perhaps a different way, a new approach is needed. Maybe, if we shift our focus from Nigeria or South Africa’s rapid growth to the growth of our weak, our poor, and our undervalued—if we govern from the *original position—perhaps then we will have true power.

galeriehamid:

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During the height of the African slave trade in the 18th and 19th century, very few pieces of African art were collected by Europeans. It is not surprising when one group of people decides to dehumanize and exploit another group of people, collecting the art of the exploited people becomes a low priority on the list. One surprising reason why some African art was collected during this time period was by missionaries who wanted to frighten their parishioners with the “heathen art’.

This may seem a bit outlandish now that we have images from all over the world available at the click of the button thanks to the internet, but try to put yourself in the shoes of an Anglo-European in the 18th century. More than likely they would have had very little, or even more likely no exposure to outside cultures. Many people are quite naturally afraid of what is different, so it is no surprise that the church decided to use this fear to their advantage.

As one specific example, Governor H. Glover took a piece of art he labeled ‘taken from a heathen temple in a small town which was destroyed’ by the governor himself. This art was displayed for missionaries and church attendees. Whether Glover was manipulative or actually thought the Africans he encountered to be heathen is not something we can know, but his actions are of course deplorable none the less. Read More

 

Posted at 8:30pm and tagged with: african history, african art, africans, black history, colonisation, history,.

curatedafrica:

imageimageimage

Cabo Verde (formally Cape Verde) was originally uninhabited when the Portuguese came and colonized the volcanic archipelago in the 15th century. (Please note: uninhibited doesn’t not imply undiscovered or unused) Ribeira Grande (on the Santiago island) became the first European settlement in tropical Africa.  By the 16th century Cabo Verde was a major center of the Transatlantic Slave Trade.  Cabo Verde also had its fair share of pirate attacks. 

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The pillary in the Cidad Velha (formerly Ribeira Grande and Portuguese for “Old City” a UNESCO World Heritage Site) where slaves were chained and tortured.

After the decline and eventual end of the slave trade in the 19th century the islands of Cabo Verde served as a stop for resupplying ships and was also commercial ports.

Movements for independence from the Portuguese began in the 1960s by Cape Verdeans and Portuguese Guineans soon armed rebellion demanded independence and grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea. Fourteen years later independence was declared although politics and relations were tense.  True independence from Portugal was not completely gained until July 5, 1975.

(Sources: Pictures | Cidad Velha | Misc Facts )

Posted at 8:30pm and tagged with: african history, history, blog, african blog, cabo verde, colonialism, colonisation, independence day, cape verde, africa, black history,.